Reference Works

Here, you will find specialist reference works, encyclopedias, and relevant dictionaries:

eHRAF World Cultures
Currently contains about 500,000 pages. More than 200 peoples or ethnic groups are indexed on the basis of different sources.

Encyclopaedia Iranica
The Encyclopædia Iranica is dedicated to the study of Iranian civilization in the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and the Indian Subcontinent.

Encyclopaedia of Islam
Accessible only from within the OII network.

Historians of the Ottoman Empire
Database on Ottoman historians. Reference work.

International Encyclopedia of Human Geography
Provides an authoritative and comprehensive source of information on the discipline of human geography. Includes entries on philosophy and theory, key concepts, methods and practices, biographies of notable geographers, and geographical thought and praxis in different parts of the world. Accesible only from within the OII-network.

Documentation on Islam Anseklopedisi. Database for the documentation of specialist literature, which forms the basis of the articles of the İA. Copies can be ordered for a fee.

İslam Ansiklopedisi
TDV İslam Anseklopedisi; it is possible to search for lemma or author of the record. Full texts can be downloaded as a PDF file.

Leo Dictionary German-English, French, Spanish, Italian, Chinese, Russian

Linguee Dictionary and search engine for English-German, Spanish, French, and Portuguese

Türk Dil Kurumu – Various Turkish dictionaries/Sözlükler

Türk Edebiyati İsimler Sözlüğü
Bibliographic encyclopedia of authors of (mainly) Ottoman literature up to the beginning of the 20th century.

Turkish-German dictionary

World Biographical Information System Online
Several million short biographies from numerous reference works published from the 16th to the beginning of the 21st century. Accessible only from within the OII network.